"ดูก่อนมารผู้มีบาป ตราบใดที่ ภิกขุ, ภิกขุนี, อุปาสก, อุปาสิกา”
"ผู้เป็นสาวก และสาวิกา ของตถาคต จักยังไม่ฉลาด"
"จักบอก จักแสดง จักบัญญัติ"
"ดูก่อนมารผู้มีบาป เรา (ตถาคต) จักยังไม่ปรินิพพานเพียงนั้น"
(ที. ม. 13/95/278) มหาปรินิพพานสูตร
ภิกขุ และภิกขุนี หมายถึง ผู้บวชชาย และผู้บวชหญิง
ผู้รู้ เข้าใจ ปฏิบัติ ตามพระธรรมวินัย และบรรลุตั้งแต่โสตาปัตติมัคค
ถึงอรหันตผลความหมายทั่วไป คือ ผู้บวชชาย และผู้บวชหญิง
ที่มาศึกษาพระธรรมวินัยภิกขุนั้นต้องศึกษารักษาปฏิบัติในศีล ๒๒๗ สิกขาบท
และภิกขุนีจะศึกษารักษา และปฏิบัติศีล ๓๑๑ สิกขาบทอุปาสก และอุปาสิกา
หมายถึง คฤหัสถ์ชาย และหญิงผู้รู้ เข้าใจ ปฏิบัติ ตามพระธรรมวินัย
คือ ชาวบ้านชาย และหญิง ทั่วไปที่นับถือพุทธศาสนา
เจ้าชายสิทธัตถะ ประสูติ ณ สวนลุมพินีวันใต้ต้นสาละ
(ปัจจุบันคือ ตำบลรุมมินเด ประเทศเนปาล)
ตรัสรู้ อนุนตรสัมมาสัมโพธิ ใต้ต้นศรีมหาโพธิริมฝั่งแม่น้ำ เนรัญชรา ตำบลอุรุเวลาเสนานิคม
(ปัจจุบันคือ ตำบลพุทธคยา ประเทศอินเดีย)
45 years before Buddhist Era
The Prince became enlightened as the Buddha under Sirimaha Bodhi Tree, along the banks of Neranjara River in the district of Uruvela Senanigamabodhi (currently called Bodh Gaya District in India)
First Dhamma Delivery | Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta
45 years before Buddhist Era
The Buddha delivered Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta on the full-moon day of the 8th lunar month to the 5 Pancavaggi ascetics in Isipatana Migadaya Forest in Varanasi, Kasi (currently called Sarnath, Varanasi), and subsequently leading to Buddha’s First Bhikkhu. The quintet subsequently became enlightened as Arahanta on the 5th waning-moon day of the 8th lunar month through Anattalakkhana Sutta.
The First Arahanta Bhikkhus (Male Monks):
First Upasaka (Buddhist Layman) and First Upasika (Buddhist Laywomen)
45 years before Buddhist Era
Former Parents and Wife Yassa Thera
They listened to Buddha’s Anupubbikatha Sutta and became enlightened as the First Upasaka and Upasika.
Throughout the following 45 years before Buddhist Era, there were countless members of Upasaka and Upasika who had attained enlightenment.
Distinguished Upasaka (Laymen):
Distinguished Upasaka (laywomen):
First Arahanta Bhikkhunis (Female Monks):
40 years before Buddhist Era
Her Royal Highness Mahapajapati Gotami ordained and became enlightened as Arahanta.
Subsequently, Her 500 Sakiyani disciples also attained enlightenment and became Arahanta Theri at the same time.
1 year before Buddhist Era
Lord Buddha delivered His Final and very important Testimony before his Extinction, saying "Yovo Ananda Mayadhammo Ca Vinayo Ca Desitopannatto So Vo Mamaccayena Sattha", which translates to:
"Ananda, Dhamma and Vinaya that I have delivered and established, once my Extinction has been completed, Dhamma and Vinaya, thereafter, will be your Master."
Once his Testimony had completed, the Buddha entered Parinibbana on the full-moon day for the 6th lunar month, reaching His 80th year of age, just before the sunrise.
Suttanta Pitake Dighanigayassamahavaggo
Article 141, page 174 (Thai language, page 123)
80 Most-Recognized Araganta Bhikkhu (Male Monks):
13 Most-Recognized Araganta Bhikkhuni (Female Monks)
The following are Bhikkhunis who were regarded as Outstanding in various ways with the Buddha:
What happened after Buddha’s Parinibbana (became extinct)?
Sangiti: Buddhist Councils
When the Lord Buddha reached Nirvana, the Dhamma teachings had been distorted over time. During the times when there were still Arahanta Thera and Theri, if there were any disagreements among the Four Buddhist Communities, the Arahanta Thera and Theri who had memorized the Dhamma teachings and the Vinaya disciplines would call for a Sangha meeting and deliberate until a unanimous resolution had been reached, and the resolution would be recited collectively to prove the validity of the agreements so that the next generations of the Fourfold Community continue to memorize and preserve the Buddha’s teachings.
First Sangiti ( The First Buddhist Council)
Sixth day after the Parinibbana of the Sammasambuddba
Bhikkhu Suphattha said to other monks,
"Stop, stop, do not be sad. Buddha is pass away
and now we can do whatever we want, not having to be afraid of him anymore”
Mahakassapa Arhanta Thera has called 500 Arhanta for meeting
to make the first Sangiti. It took 6 months to complete in the Sattapani Cave, Rajgir, Bihar
Second Sangiti ( The Second Buddhist Council)
100 years after Lord Buddha has Parinibbana, Bhikkhu Wacheeputta changed 10 rules of Vinaya ( Disciplinary rules)
The 700 Arahanta Theras, are called for second sangiti. They spent a total of 8 months at Valugarama, Vaishali, India
After completing the third Sangiti. King Asoka knew that Buddhism will not be able to last in India; He sent out missionaries into 9 directions in order to protect Dhamma. Those missionaries had reached many places and many fourfold communities who were waiting to hear dhamma were enlighten.
First Direction: The Majantika Arahanta Thera is the leader to spread Dhamma in Kashmir Gandara ( Kashmir) Teaching Asiwisoma Sutta 80,000 Fourfold communities listen to dhamma and attain enlighten. 100,000 people ordained.
Second Direction, Deva Aranhata Thera is the leader to spread Dhamma in Mahisaka Country ( now Southern India). Teaching Devaduta Sutta and 40,000 people attained enlighten. Total 40,000 ordained.
Third Direction, Rakita Arahanta Thera a leader to announce the dhamma in Wanwasi (now in the southwest of India) Teaching Anmatuk pariyay kata , total of 60,000 people attained enlightenment and 37,000 ordain. Buddhist beliefs were established at that region.
Forth Direction: Yonak Dhamma Rakita Arahanta Thera was a leader to announce dhamma in Aparantaka Country. (Currently in the north of Bombay, India) Teaching Akkikhantupama Sutta, 37,000 attain enlightenment. 1,000 became Bhikkhus and 6,000 became Bhikkhunis.
Fifth Direction: Dhamma Rakita Arahanta Thera was leader to announce dhamma in Maharatha (currently northeastern India) Teaching Maha Naratha Kassapa Jataka 84,000 attain enlightenment. 13,000 ordained.
Sixth Direction: Rakita Arahanta Thera was leader to announce dhamma in Yonok State (currently Central Asia) Teaching Garagarama Sutta 137,000 listen to dhamma and attain enlightenment. 10,000 ordain and Buddhism was established in that region.
Seventh Direction: Majhima Arahanta Thera was a leader to spread dhamma in Himawan (currently the Himalayan region). Teaching Dhammachak Sutta and 80 million attain enlightenment and 100,000 ordain.
Eighth Direction: Sonata and Uttara Arahanta Thera was a leader to spread dhamma in Suwanna Bhumi (Currently, countries in Indochina, such as Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, etc.) Teaching Bhamajara Sutta 60000 was enlighten and 3,500 became Bhikkhus and 1500 became Bhikkhunis
Ninth Direction: Mahinta Arahanta Thera and Sangha Citta Arahanta Theri was a leader to spread dhamma in Tampa (now is Sri Lanka) The large number of Fourfold communities were enlightenment. 68,000 became Arahanta Bhikkhus and 500 became Arahanta Bhikkhuni. Buddhism was firmly established in that region.
Moriya Wong Of the Ashoka Dharma Chaya deity Until the reign of Jupiter And established himself as a king, named Putsiyamitpunpayamit Buddhists were heavily prosecuted under his reign, and many temples and shrines were destroyed. Many were slaughtered in a attempt to eradicate all traces of Buddhism in his kingdom, much of the hard work done by King Assok and past leaders were destroyed.
During this time, Theravada Buddhism slowly evaporated in India, but instead thrived in the 8 regions King Asoka sent missionaries to. Buddhist Teachings were recorded on palm leaves to ensure future generations would be able to learn the dhamma
Mahayana Buddhism began to flourish in northwest India Buddhism slowly spread to China, Korea, Japan, and other East Asian countries.
Enter the Tantra Buddhist era. Which is a Hindu-like sect of Buddhism Obsessed with superstition, stupidity and various sexual acts
Turkish Muslim army invaded the India. In Bihar, India many Bhikkhu and Bhikkhuni were murdered, and religious buildings, the ancient library, and many scriptures and texts were destroyed. For more than 500 years, Buddhism has disappeared from India.
India was a British colony.
General Sergeant Alexander Cunningham, British archaeologist was interested in the story of the Lord Buddha. He, and his team excavated many Buddhist artifacts and reestablished Buddhism India.
W. Reese David and his wife and faculty set up the Pali Association.
(The Pali Text Society) in London, England for the purpose of recording the Tripitaka Western interest in Buddhism increased.
Anakarika Dhammapala, a native of Sri Lanka was once Christian. He learned dhamma from his American teacher, Colonel Octoc. Then he had a strong desire to restore Buddhism. Vowed before Buddha tree that he will sacrifice his lives to restore Buddhism in Buddha Land (India).
Dr. Ambedkar, former Constitution Drafting Committee and Minister of Justice was a advocate for the Untouchables caste in India, he gave many of those in the lower caste to live a better life and was a advocate for Buddhism.
Millions of people were converted to Buddhism and he established temples for Bhikkhu And Bhikkhuni.
The Fourfold communities are established in Buddha Land once again. OOO
After the third Sangiti, King Ashoka sent out the 9 missionaries. The most important direction was the island of Sri Lanka. Buddhism pospered and Sri Lanka have large number of Bhikkhus and Bhikkhunis. The four communities have a very strong faith in dhamma. Although having lost the land and Buddhism many times, but the buddhist still remains the heart of all people
It is an era in which Buddhism is suffering in India due to civil unrest.
During this era, Bhikkhuni disappeared, and the number of Bhikkus decreased dramatically. Until the Lord Vichai Phahu 1st wish to restore Buddhism in the year of 1608 BE, he invited monks from Myanmar to ordain Sri Lankan and establish the Sangha Communities.
2200- 2294 BE
Sri Lanka was occupied by the Dutch and Buddhists were prosecuted. Finally, there is no remaining monk.
2340- 2491 BE
India occupied by England
For over 300 years Buddhism was lost in the land of India, there were no Bhikkus, no Bhikkunis, the four fold community did not exist.
Sri Lanka gained independence The first thing that Sri Lankan people do is to declare Buddhism as the national religion
Began to ordain Bhikkhu and Bhikkhunis to complete the Fourfold communities and help the religion prosper again in India.
Mr. Narin Phasit called for assembly of 4 Buddhist communities again in Thailand .
By allowing both of their daughters to be ordained by the elder named Saram (age 16 years), the younger name of Chao Dee (aged 13 years)
With 6 other ladies, the Thai monks were ordained as novices.
They were not allowed in Thailand and was accused for being a fake monk. Two of them were arrested, the sister Saram got put in jail. After release both had been ordained as Bhikkhuni for 6 years. Until the sister Saram got abducted and disappeared. Thus, the story of Bhikkhuni remained quiet for another 20 years.
Mrs. Voramai Kabil Singha, from Thailand, fled to Taiwan and ordained as a Mahayana bhikkuni.
Bhikkhuni Voramai has created “Watta Songdham Kanlayani" as a "temple" for women.
Became the first in Thailand to establish a temple for Bhikkunis.
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Chatsumalon Kilimasing, a philosopher and religious scholar who is a daughter of Bhikkhuni Voramai and has traveled to Sri Lanka to ordain as Sammanera (the novice monk) Ater passing the ordination for two years, she has ordain and became a Bhikkhuni named “ Bhikkhuni Dhammananda”, Abbot Watta Songdham Kanlayani.
She is a Theravada monk with clear ordination history that has been first recognized in Thailand.
Buddha Time Through Time
"Savakkhato Bhagavata Dhammo"
Dhamma is Buddha’s well-said teachings.
Ones who study and practice Dhamma will reach enlightenment.
Dhamma is timeless.
As long as Dhamma teachings and Vinaya discipline remain, the Fourfold Buddhist Community will find a way to escape all sufferings, and “Buddha’s Time” shall forever remain with those who study Dhamma.